Civil law is the law that pertains to persons, things, and the relationships that develop between them, excluding criminal law and commercial law. It is a comprehensive system of rules and principles usually arranged in codes which are easily accessible to citizens and jurists.
Civil law cases are concerned only with private law. The injured person whose right has been violated brings the lawsuit. Legally, this is known as rights in personam. By contrast, in criminal law, it is the government that files charges.
There are 4 categories of civil law.
They are- Contract law, Tort law, Family law and Property law. Contract law is the law which regulates the relationship between two parties who have entered into a contract.
Tort law is a law which deals with civil harm and personal wrongdoing. This damage results in damages or compensation. There are 3 kinds of torts- negligence, intentional tort and strict liability.
Family law is the law which deals with familial disputes such as marriage, divorce and child custody.
Property law is the law which governs the rules which must be followed in the process of buying, selling and keeping property i.e. a flat, working space etc.